Sexual Reproduction for Same Sex Couples?

Photo by: zoomzoom2

Photo by: zoomzoom2

One of the common arguments against gay marriage goes something like this: marriage is an institution that is meant to support reproduction, and same-sex couples can’t sexually reproduce. Full disclosure: I support gay marriage. However, regardless of my opinion, this entry will help debunk this specific argument. More importantly, I will outline three important discoveries that will one day allow same sex couples to have biological children that are purely made from their genes.

The definition of sexual reproduction needs to be clarified here. According to Wikipedia, sexual reproduction passes “a combination of genetic material to offspring, resulting in diversity.” I’m going to clarify: sexual reproduction is when the DNA of the two parental units, through the process of meiosis (formation of a gamete) and the process of fertilization, each contribute to ~50% of the genes of the resulting offspring.

Now let’s go through some basic stem cell science (read: skip this paragraph if you know the basics). Stem cells are characterized by two abilities: self-renewal and potency. Self-renewal describes their ability to divide indefinitely. Potency refers to the fact that stem cells can “differentiate” into different types of specialized cells. Adult stem cells are generally “multipotent” which means they can differentiate into a few cell types. Embryonic stem cells are “pluripotent” which means they can become any type of cell in the body. This is the reason that embryonic stem cells are so interesting: pluripotency. Pluripotent stem cells are a necessity for same-sex couples to reproduce. Now that we’ve covered some basics, we’ll move on to the three important breakthroughs that will make same sex reproduction possible:

1. Cellular reprogramming: the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)

One source of pluripotent stem cells is the inner cell mass of a developing embryo – embryonic stem cells. However, a technique known as “cellular reprogramming” allows a pluripotent stem cell to be created from a mature adult skin cell after being treated with a number of transcription factors. These cells have been dubbed “induced pluripotent stem cells” or iPSCs. They are nearly identical to embryonic stem cells. More importantly, they are genetically identical to the person who donated the skin cells. This makes the cells “individualized” pluripotent stem cells. These cells can be used to form any type of tissue in the body.

2. Creation of Oocytes (eggs) from pluripotent stem cells

Pluripotent stem cells can be directed to “differentiate” into any type of cell in the body. It was reported in 2003 that scientists successfully directed mouse pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into mouse oocytes. What this means is that a skin cell can be taken from any person (male included) reprogrammed into an iPSC, and then the iPSC can be differentiated into an egg cell. This is the discovery that can help two men have a child together.

3. Creation of Sperm from pluripotent stem cells

The same exact logic from eggs can be applied to sperm. Scientists have recently demonstrated the ability to form sperm from embryonic stem cells. While the team has warned that this science will not be used for fertility treatment, the creation of sperm still has ramifications beyond infertility research. For the purpose of same-sex reproduction, the creation of sperm in vitro can one day help two women have a child together.

Application of these discoveries towards same-sex reproduction:

These three techniques, once perfected will lead to the ability for male/male and female/female couples to have biological children, children who are a combination of their own genes. The creation of eggs from pluripotent stem cells is important for male/male couples, and the creation of sperm from pluripotent stem cells is important for female/female couples. Below, I will walk step-by-step through the scenarios for male/male and female/female couples.

Sexual Reproduction for Gay Couples:

For a gay couple, one man needs to beGay Couple designated as the father (the one who donates the sperm), and the other as the mother (the one who donates the egg). The “father” in this case can just donate sperm the normal way…no hardcore science is really involved. The “mother,” however, needs to employ the reprogramming and differentiation techniques discussed above. Specifically, this man needs to donate skin cells. These cells must be reprogrammed into iPSCs, and the iPSCs must then be differentiated into eggs (this process is shown to the right). Once the eggs are created, they can be mixed with the sperm from the “father” to create an embryo from two men.

There are a few things to be aware of. First of all, the “mother” is also responsible for donating the mitochondrial DNA, which means that the man who opts to create the egg will also be donating the mitochondrial DNA. Another issue is that men carry an X and a Y chromosome. This means that there is a 50% chance that any gametes (sperm or egg) created from a man will have a Y chromosome. The egg must not have a Y chromosome because it might result in an embryo with two Y chromosomes, which would not survive. Finally, men still cannot carry children (I’m talking about biological men (XY), despite what you may have heard in the summer of 2008), so the embryos created from the two men will have to be implanted into a surrogate mother to deliver the baby.

Sexual Reproduction for Lesbian Couples:

For lesbian couples, there are fewerLesbian Reproduction caveats to be aware of. Once again, one woman must be the “mother” by donating the egg while the other plays the role of the “father” by donating the sperm. The mother can donate the eggs just as a woman normally does through reproductive endocrinology in an in vitro fertilization setting. The “father” must utilize the reprogramming and differentiation techniques described above to produce the sperm (as summarized in the accompanying picture).

Either member of this couple is capable of carrying the embryo (or embryos). If they opt to both carry embryos at the same time, I would go so far to say that the children can be considered fraternal twins. There is one important caveat that the women must be aware of: they cannot have a son. Women only carry XX chromosomes, and neither of them are capable of donating the Y chromosome necessary for male development. For this reason, lesbian couples are only capable of having biological daughters.

Politics, Ethics, and the Like…

The application of technology towards same-sex reproduction, in my eyes, is an advancement for both gay marriage and science. Scientifically, we are learning more about child development every year, and it will allow us to bring more healthy children into the world. For same-sex couples, the once impossible concept of a biological child is now a real possibility.

While I cannot see any ethical arguments against this type of procedure, I am open to a discussion about how far this may be pushing the envelope. In any case, I am still amazed every time I think about how far we have come with the ability to help people through science.

166 Responses to “Sexual Reproduction for Same Sex Couples?”


  1. 1 Amber

    just curious, could I have a copy of your list of sources. I am in a serious relationship with a girl and this is really encouraging to me. I’d like to look further into it.

  2. 2 Syaqina

    Wow! i am really looking forward to having a baby with my girlfriend. Now,i’m just curious what the price might be like for this whole procedure to be done.Maybe u can evaluate me more on that.Thanks alot!

  3. 3 admin

    hi there, I’m really glad to find this concept so positively received!

    The first disclaimer, which I may not have made clear enough is that while all the necessary technologies for something like this to happen are currently in development or developed, it will still be some time before this becomes commercially available. I won’t dare to make a prediction since many scientists wiser than myself have been completely wrong when it comes to estimating how long it takes for a particular invention to be developed.

    That being said, here are links to the journal articles that describe each of the steps I have written about above:

    1. Creation of pluripotent stem cells from skin cells:
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18035408

    2. Creation of sperm from pluripotent stem cells:
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16824959

    Those are the two major techniques that might allow any cell from a woman to eventually produce a “sperm” cell, capable of fertilizing an egg.

    I want to emphasize that they both need a bit more work done before they are perfected/safe for humans. On top of that, there is the good possibility that some sort of ethical debate will lurk its way into the development of this technology.

    Syaqina: glad you found this interesting! Price is something that is sort of difficult to estimate, but I can point you in the proper direction. This procedure requires all current procedures used for your typical “in vitro” fertilization cycle, which can cost from $15,000-$50,000 on its own (depending on a number of factors).

    On top of the IVF costs, there will be the costs of cellular reprogramming and sperm cell creation. These will likely be even more expensive given that their is probably going to be a lower demand for those. The bottom line: it will be expensive. To summarize how Lucille Bluth put it, these children will spend their inheritance getting here.

    I hope I’ve answered your questions, and thanks for reading!

  4. 4 Eric

    “While I cannot see any ethical arguments against this type of procedure”

    Seriously?

  5. 5 admin

    Just inviting others to post them.

  6. 6 Anya

    This is brilliant!! I hope that I can be one person out of many to help bring this technology to everyone who deserves life-long happiness in the form of a child :) The y chromosome will be extinct in 14 million years anyway, just kidding, maybe they did their calculus wrong. But love transcends all, even gender, and this was shown to me especially recently when DC allowed recognition of same sex marriages!! I can’t wait to have a baby with my girlfriend either!!! Please keep this page as updated as you can and thank you for this hope :D DD

  7. 7 yang

    is this procedure ur talking about practiced?i mean is there a same sex couple have a baby or having a baby now with this?i’m really interested.i’m asking this myself finally it’s answered love is love and this is a very helpful innovation for same sex couples.pls. keep updated.:]

  8. 8 admin

    this procedure is not practiced. I’ve merely outlined the steps that are necessary for this to be put into practice. as always, more work would be needed before this could be clinically acceptable.

  9. 9 the24user

    That will support POLYAMORY as well as homosexuality as the woman will have to carry the child! If a man and a woman donate their skin cells to one woman as well, which will give the foetus X an Ys and of course the child will have three parents!

  10. 10 Joy

    I’m a medical student from China, and also a les girl. I am planing to do research right in this area for my PhD in the future if it is possible. To see this idea here today really surprised and encouraged me.

  11. 11 jay

    I too am a medical student but here in the US and I am so dumbfounded by this exciting yet simple (for me) concept. It’s really not all that complicated of an idea to understand and I am thrilled to think that at the time that I want to have children, I can do so with my husband and not a surrogate woman or donor egg. While adoption is still a plausible option, I think it’s phenomenal to think that I too can pass along my genetics with the man I love, not some poor stranger who might wonder where or how her donated egg is or has become. Yes the procedure will be pricey, but so is surrogacy these days and, as noted, IVF. Thank you sincerely for posting this.

  12. 12 Del LaGrace Volcano

    I wonder how this would impact those with intersex anatomies that are also chromosomally different, such as AIS/XY women and XXY men/women/intersex? I realize you are trying to keep this article ‘simple’ but as I’m sure you must know, there are many other chromosomal combinations-not all which result in infertility.

  13. 13 Chris

    I have read about this about a year ago, and did a paper on it as well. What I truly would like to know is how can I/or we the people go about to put a great effort to make this all happen? There are still laws against gay marriage let alone stem cell research with Human cells… and so on and so forth. Would I personally want and hope that others back me up on this is… Where and how can we bring this to the light so that more more people can get involved and support this. I’m pretty sure that not only it will take time but a lot of funding to make all this happen.

  14. 14 Jessica

    This has given me so much hope for me and my girlfriend. We both want a child that’s biologically ours and after researching and finding that it just might be possibly….really gives me hope. Im currently writing a persuasive speech on why same sex marriage should be legal and Im using this information to prove that reproduction in same sex relations can take place because that’s one main arguement.

  15. 15 Marina

    After a lecture on meiosis today, I thought about this possibility and felt so original and bad ass only to find out others thought of it before me. While it sucks that I’m not quite as smart as I hoped, I’m still pleased that this is being researched. Imagine, random fertilization x 2!!!! Now that’s bad ass. One draw back I would fear is a second wind of eugenic’s like tyranny, where some people in the 1984 future (well, maybe 2084) control not just our mating habits, but the gametes that are allowed to survive!!! bum bum bum….

    Oh shoot, I hope I didn’t just give away my second idea; sci-fi genetic engineering novel in a police state society.

  16. 16 Ragn

    Hey. Im looking at different fields of research studies and this has really struck my intress. If I wanted to he part of speeding up with processe would you know which depertment/ reseach clinic/ university/ ect. I should be asking around?

  17. 17 Kai

    when i read this gosh i was shocked and this give me courage to love a girl and have a girlfriend forever with ours children. hope this would be happen . he same sex marriage should be legal.And the same sex marriage should be legal.I hope God don’t mind this T^T

  18. 18 mayuri belani

    thnx alot…dis information has really been v useful..

  19. 19 mayuri belani

    thnx alot this information has been very useful…

  20. 20 Sibongile

    Wow! This is absolutely amazing. I am hoping that one day my beautiful girlfriend and I could have a daughter that can rightfully call us both “Mommy”. I’m looking forward to hearing more about this procedure by the time I am ready to have children. Thank you so much for sharing this knowledge.

  21. 21 Ken

    While I personally am not interested in romance – a part of me believes myself to be asexual – this concept to me had always seemed impossible. Not because of prejudice but out of ignorance. I’m only 16 and while I have always been interested in sex as a science, this was one field I had never researched. When I typed in my search to google on a whim I NEVER expected any kind of credible or logical research to pop up. I had no idea it was so possible – not to be confused with close because I doubt such things will be happening in my lifetime. This does however make me very happy.

    I guess it’s good I final took a break from playing LoZ: OoT to question how it was possible for the Gerudo tribe to survive. Now I know :P

  22. 22 Tush

    The most wonderful scientific achievements are those which in the long run, make people’s lives happier. This is one of the best and most incredible examples (albeit yet to be fully known or acknowledged, I may add. In the coming years, however, the whole thing might just snowball!)
    Incredible. Thanks for letting Us know.

  23. 23 Holly

    I’ve been really interested in this idea lately and I’m thinking of trying to pursue it as a career in the future. I’m glad that the first result of my Google search came up with such a good article.

  24. 24 hema devi

    hye….the article saying that lesbian couples cannot have a son…but the sperm created from pluripotent stem cell should be carrying a XY chromosome. how isit that they cannot produce a boy? im confused here.

  25. 25 SH

    This is absolutely amazing! A fellow student of mine recently told me it was possible. I did not believe her until I read this today. This brings so much hope for me and my girlfriend, even though it might not happen ten years on from now, but still a dream is a dream and some day it will be happening. Maybe not for us, but for many others who have the same dreams. Science is a hero!

  26. 26 Kais

    OMG.I was never happier to be gay , this is intelligent , if this thing happens for real , I would never give up being gay , and being the person how is really me , but as some said , first we gotta get the whole world to accept gays relationships , and most important , gay marriage .

  27. 27 Anna

    When do you think it will be in practised and or legalized in the United States or the UK? Hopefully within the next ten years? Also, can you provide an rough estimate on the complete entire price of developing a baby from two women?
    This is brilliant, so excited.

  28. 28 jual kaos asking

    What a information of un-ambiguity and preserveness of precious familiarity about unpredicted emotions.

  29. 29 Leon

    I think the articles is misdirecting. While you may have technologies under development that will allow homosexuals to have babies, it does not mean that reproduction is happening. If you into literal meanings then we are all made of carbon compounds and there is no need to clothing. But that doesn’t happen because reproduction is not just making two cells created a life form. Reproduction should be natural. I accept the exception about straight couples who have problems reproducing to go for advanced methods to have a child but this is completely ridiculous. There is of course ethically wrong. If not then we should declare incest legal. I think you should not see any unethical there too.

    Disclaimer: I am not anti-homosexual. I just think it is wrong to debunk an argument through an unethical way. Adoption and surrogate should be fine.

  30. 30 Debbie Downer

    Dear LG’s,
    Going to burst this bubble! Mice derived from iPSCs have a high incidence of death from malignant cancer! A recent paper came out in the journal Stem Cells indicating that iPS cells are tumorigenic, supporting the notion that iPS cell safety is a serious concern! It’s just not going to happen, but nice try.
    Sincerely
    GOD!

  31. 31 Nik

    Wow, its amazing what is possible. This just show how important stem cell research could be. It is unfortunate that there law that restrict or ban stem cell research. Although this research may never make it out of the laboratory, it is always nice to see science geared towards the lgbt community.
    Now for all the haters, seme-sex couples deserve all the same rights as any stright couple. If this does become a real possibility of genetic offspring from a same-sex couple then it is not a crime against nature. For it would not be a crime against nature if nature allows it and it is worth the try.

  32. 32 Nik

    P.S. If this does not come to furishion, then there is alway the possibly of forced genetic manipulation. As any good science fiction fan knows, it is only a matter of time till we start messing around with are own D-N-A.

  33. 33 Catrena

    @Debbie Downer – funny that you say God is causing the cancer – isn’t that the same God that caused cancer in the science that provided x-rays, radiation treatments – oh, the same God that killed with Polio and we are still studying and growing a test patients cells from the 50′s. Yea, um, if you believe in God, you would belive he/she/whatever has given us many scientific breakthroughs with some issues that needed to be worked through along the way to achieving their absolulte development. Humanity is better for everyday for the achievements of science. This will happen, the playing field leveled for those who have trouble conceiving regardless of sexuality.

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  35. 35 Point to ponder?

    God/Bing Bang creates (wo)man, (wo)man creates child, child creates/discovers science, science creates child, child creates (wo)man, (wo)man creates God/Bing Bang. Hit the reset button and start it all over again…

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    I tend not to write a lot of remarks, however after reading
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    Chromosome Chronicles. I actually do have 2 questions for you if you do not mind.
    Is it just me or do some of the responses look as if they are
    left by brain dead visitors? :-P And, if you are writing on additional sites, I
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  37. 37 Jennifer Hooker

    This made me cry and I instantly became motivated, encouraged, and hopeful. My girlfriend wants a baby that looks like her and that she can watch grow knowing that it’s hers and I also want to raise that child knowing that half of it’s DNA is mine :) people don’t understand that adoption and sperm donating (while much appreciated and helpful) isn’t the same as having your own living breathing flesh. Thankyou once again :) I want to help this grow and became availiable in any way possible :)

  38. 38 mohan r rao

    On reaching Adulthood,I WAS UNDER THE IMPRESSION THAT WE MALES WRE HOMOSEXUAL AND THT SEXBETWEEN TWO WOMEN DIDNOT EXIST,BUT NOW WITH SO MUCH INFORMATION AVAILABLE,HAVE COME TO KNOW THAT EVEN LESBIANS CAN HAVE A CHILD THROUGH NEW TECHNIQUES AVAILABLE THROUGH SCIENCE OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

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  41. 41 Torontonian A

    Not just this piece of technology… but I realize and thank God that he has granted humanity so much talents, gifts and love. (But don’t be conceited and think that we got any close to the realm of God as if the greatest inventions/ movements of ants could ever overlook the intelligence of humanity…)

    Anyway, it will be really nice and just beautiful if two people who truly love each other can make a baby/ babies of their own (as a symbol of love and unity) regardless of their sexual orientation.

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  48. 48 Paul

    While I understand the basic science here, I am unclear about something. So if a female donates a stem cell that is programmed with instructions to become a sperm cell, wouldn’t that resulting sperm cell only carry an X chromosome? How would a stem cell from a female ever carry a Y chromosome? Therefore, if it ever becomes possible for women to create sperm and have babies together, they would only be able to have girls, right?

  49. 49 CakeMan

    @Paul Yes they will only be able to have daughters since again they only have the X chromosomes. And because the male population itself is declining, this would not change anything. Also, what is so wrong with daughters? :3

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  51. 51 jam

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  53. 53 Greg R

    Interesting article. I also agree with gay marriage and I am a geneticist. While this article is plausible, we are a FAR way from this. One major oversight about his technique would be altered gene expression in the offspring from differential gene imprinting due to epigenetic modifications of the haploid genomes of same sex cells (i.e., if an egg is formed from an XY cell, then it won’t have the same gene imprinting as a normal female egg. The same goes for sperm formed from XX cells. This could lead to huge defects in the offspring.)

    Although this approach works in theory, there are “easier” approaches that would allow same sex couples to have children. A modified mammalian cloning approach would be so much more feasible: gametic nuclear transfer (instead of somatic nuclear transfer) Basically, for two guys to reproduce: a donor egg (from a female) is exnulceated (the nucleus, which contains the gDNA is removed) and replaced with the nucleus of one of the guy’s sperm (via microinjection) then it is fertilized with the sperm from the other guy. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is from the donor mother (female) but the nuclear genome is from both males. This is fine because mtDNA really doesn’t differ person-to-person (there are only 37 mitochondrial genes as opposed to the ~25K nuclear genes). The problem with epigenetics still persists in this approach. Thus, I would propose research be directed toward that first before attempting this in human.

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  2. 2 Sexual Reproduction for Same Sex Couples? - Empty Closets - A safe online community for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered people coming out
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